Simply put, a nuclear reactor is a device, which produces heat. 0 vgs 7 Zone Controllers λ primary means of normal control λ bulk power control and spatial flux control λ they work by varying level in H2O filled compartments λ 14 controllers in 6 vertical tubes λ fill on reactor trip In CANDU reactors, the void coefficient of reactivity is … These reactors pump water into the reactor core under high pressure to prevent the water from boiling. PHWR represents about 10% of all nuclear power reactors in the world. This type of reactor uses Uranium at its natural level of around 0.7% U235 concentration with no enrichment. In the boilers, the heated heavy water heats up ordinary water to make steam. What does "CANDU" mean? Fuel elements are placed in a horizontal pressurized tubes - fuel channels - and cooled with heavy water. This means that the level of energy and heat produced by a reactor following a loss of coolant would naturally decrease before shutdown. How does it work? Nuclear reactors are, fundamentally, large kettles, which are used to heat water to produce enormous amounts of low-carbon electricity. The two waters do not mix, but the normal water removes the heat from the heavy water, and thus the normal water is the coolant. A.8 This cooling feature of CANDU reactors works because of the difference in temperature and elevation between the steam generators (cooler and physically higher than the reactor core) and the reactor core (hotter and lower than the steam generators) Emergency injection systems. Heavy does not absorb neutron, so the CANDU reactor can use natural Uranium. In some reactors, such as pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, this coefficient is negative. In a CANDU® reactor, heavy water does this job. As of January 2002, 32 of the 438 nuclear reactors in operation around the world were of CANDU type. Around the heavy water flows normal water. The Canadian style reactors are commonly called CANDU reactors. Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) – 10% Usually referred to as CANDU, PHWR was developed in the 1950s and is widely used in countries such as Canada and India. Heavy water (D 2 O) is 10% heavier than ordinary water and has a neutron moderating ratio 80 times higher than ordinary water. A.5 What is "heavy water"? A.4 Where does the first neutron come from in a fission chain reaction? More than 65% of the commercial reactors in the United States are pressurized-water reactors or PWRs. They come in different sizes and shapes, and can be powered by a variety of different fuels. This steam spins large turbines, which in turn drive the generators that produce electricity. In the CANDU reactor the core is surrounded by heavy water only. 24/05/01 CANDU Safety - #11 - Reactivity Control.ppt Rev. Like other water moderated reactors, fission reactions in the reactor core heat pressurized water in a primary cooling loop. It is pumped constantly through the fuel channels in the reactor and takes the heat from the fuel bundles up to boilers above the reactor. A.2 How does a CANDU reactor work? A.7 How is fission energy converted to electrical energy in CANDU plants? Heat is required to turn water into steam. The water in the core is heated by nuclear … A.6 How does a CANDU reactor refuel on-power? The CANDU reactor is conceptually similar to most light water reactors, although it differs in the details. How does a nuclear reactor work? Meltdown of CANDU is extremely unlikely due to construction features of the reactor. In a nuclear power station, the reactor performs the same work as a boiler in a coal, gas or oil-fired station. A.3 What is "nuclear fission"? Enormous amounts of low-carbon electricity of the 438 nuclear reactors are, fundamentally, kettles. 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