[Via]. Among the earlier designs was the Martin 250SH bow turret of the PBM-3 twin-engined patrol flying boat which had many points of similarity in design and action. in the forest at La Baule Escoublac on Jan. 3, 1943. The turret held the gunner, two heavy machine guns, ammunition, and sights. Actual Nose Art panel from crashed B-17 at St. Nazaire, France – 03 January 1943 [Via]. With the E model, the top twin guns were moved directly behind the cockpit with the Bendix powered turret, which was manned by the Flt Eng. Ironically, post war analysis of B-17 crew fatality records revealed that the ball turret gunner had the safest job on the plane (with the pilot having the most dangerous). For those manning that station death was indeed a … It was a manned turret, as distinct from remote-controlled turrets also in use. Randall Jarrell's poem The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner can be found in many anthologies and is his most well known work. He was considered a perfect fit for the B-17’s ball turret. Our colour pasty. Magee was 5-foot-7 and could barely fit into the small space inside the turret. Ranked among the luckiest people in the world, Alan E. Magee survived a free fall of almost four miles from a B-17 bomber during a bombing raid in WWII. The hardware has survived; the soft flesh has been crushed. The design was mainly deployed on the B-17 Flying Fortress and the B-24 Liberator, as well as the United States Navy's Liberator, the PB4Y-1. He could then open the hatch and would climb in. The Ball Turret Gunner tells us how he basically got to be in the army, “From my mother’s sleep I fell into the State” to me this seems like his mother is unaware of her son being in the army. There was no room inside for a parachute, which was left in the cabin above the turret. It was common knowledge among soldiers that the B-17 ball turret gunners had a very high casualty rate. Everybody else in the plane understood that the [ball turret gunner] was a dead man. Bodies crushed and swollen. From my mother’s sleep I fell into the State, And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze. Armed with two 50-caliber machine guns and capable of rotating 360 degrees, the ball turret gunner was responsible for protecting the otherwise-exposed underbelly of the flying fortress. This happened while Andy Rooney was in England reporting a news story. Six miles from earth, loosed from its dream of life, I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters. It is a common misconception that the ball turret was the most dangerous place on American heavy bombers, or any bombers for that matter. Six miles from earth, loosed from its dream of life, I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters. Our crew trained together in the states as a ten man crew with two waist gunners but when we got to England and were assigned to a heavy bomb group, they were flying crews with only one waist gunner instead of two. [POEM] The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell. Not according to this study http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/woundblstcs/chapter9.htm It found waist gunners had the most but there were 2. (NASM (SI-80-20353)) Aerial gunnery training had a make-do, try-anything quality, resulting in the design of 16 types of outdoor ranges. | Britannic: A Century After Being Lost to the Waves, Opened to Divers, The 10,000 room German WW2 resort complex never had a single guest, now luxury beachfront Condos, The “Red Zone” In France Is So Dangerous that 100 Years After WWI It Is Still A No-Go Area. In a US gun turret the gunner opperated a large wire wound variable resistor called a rheostat which applied the current to the amplidyne. Ball Turret Gunner. The bomber took a couple of nasty blows on its wing and engine; it started spiralling towards the ground, and was spinning at a very high speed. The belly gunners were protected only by a glass bubble which made them an easy target for the enemy. Normally, the gunner accessed the firing chamber by releasing a latch and raising the cover to a position perpendicular to the gun but this was not possible in the ball turret. A reflector sight was hung from the top of the turret, positioned roughly between the gunner's feet. On the return leg, the ball turret gunner left his turret once the aircraft had cleared the area in which fighter resistance was a factor. True? Or maybe he knew the dangers of singing up for the army but had no … Three months before being shot down, the original crew assigned to the B-17F Snap! Once the aircraft was in enemy territory the ball was rotated so that the door was in the floor of the plane. It is about the death of a gunner in a Sperry ball turret on a World War II American bomber aircraft. Since this turret is of the ball type, the gunner moves with his guns and sight in elevation and azimuth by means of control handles. Not according to this study http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/woundblstcs/chapter9.htm It found waist gunners had the most but there were 2. I was trained as a waist gunner so how did I end up in the most hated position on the B-17 as the lower ball turret gunner? Magee had no idea how to control the plane and saw a small opening,  which he quickly jumped through. The Sperry ball turret was very small in order to reduce drag, and was typically operated by the shortest man of the crew. [POEM] The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell. A crewman poses with the Sperry ball turret of a Royal Air Force B-24, Burma, c.1943-1945, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Development of Aircraft Gun Turrets in the AAF, 1917-1944, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ball_turret&oldid=965294547, Articles lacking sources from September 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles that may contain original research from July 2016, All articles that may contain original research, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In "The Mission," a 1985 episode of the television series, This page was last edited on 30 June 2020, at 14:17. Did That Actually Happen? It wasn’t easy what they had to go through. He was 24, and was one of the ten-man crew of the B-17 bomber. Now he is 87! The Ball Turret Gunner tells us how he basically got to be in the army, “From my mother’s sleep I fell into the State” to me this seems like his mother is unaware of her son being in the army. Who was this gunner? The space inside the turret was very small and cramped. The ball turret, like this one on a B-17 in England in 1943, was designed small to reduce drag, so its gunner usually was the shortest man in the crew. It was their second mission in “Berlin Special,” a B-17 “Flying Fortress.” Their four-engine bomber was part of the 92nd Bomb Group, 407th Squadron of the 8th Air Force flying out of an airbase near Podington, a tiny farm village some 40-miles northwest of London during World War II. In almost every case, there was not enough room for the ball turret gunner to wear a parachute. The gunner placed his feet in the heel rests and th… S/Sgt. The city was the site of a Nazi nuclear energy project. Six miles from earth, loosed from its dream of life, I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters. Our accents thick. Development of the spherical Emerson was halted. But he was not aware that he had jumped in a 4-mile drop without his parachute. He felt a need to enlist in the Army and defend his country. Barney bailed out and was rescued two days later. Access was severely restricted by the guns' location in the small turret. The Sperry-designed ventral system saw widespread use and production, including much sub-contracting. The Sperry ball turret, meant for ventral defense needs on aircraft, was used on both the B-17 Flying Fortress and the B-24 Liberator as well as the United States Navy's Liberator, the PB4Y. A-2 jacket worn by Fifteenth Air Force ball turret gunner SSgt Emil Barney. He'd be crushed." Sperry ball turret on a B-17 Flying Fortress - 1942. show full show summary. Ball Turret Gunner: Staff Sergeant William H. Cassiday, 32346219, New York – Killed in Action Radio Operator: Staff Sergeant Ralph J. Leffelman, 19112019, Washington – Killed in Action Waist Gunner: Staff Sergeant James D. Houtchens, 37483248, Nebraska – Killed in Action They took off from Molesworth, England, and their target was a German submarine port in France. The gunner released the latch and removed the cover which allowed space to clear the action. The ball turret gunner has not had a living instant to achieve the self-recognition celebrated by Aries or Yeats's Major Gregory. Randall Jarrell - 1914-1965. Magee’s friend, Don Jenkins, also a veteran of WWII, said that being a B-17 gunner was not an easy job during WWII. The hardware has survived; the soft flesh has been crushed. 'The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner' is a short, violent poem showing more than just how brutal war can be. As a child, he spent time in Los Angeles, where his grandparents lived, and he would later write movingly about the city in “The Lost World,” one of his best-known poems. He was released in May 1945. And it often went to the shortest man among the crew. The cocking handles were located too close to the gunner to be operated easily, so a cable was attached to the handle through pulleys to a handle near the front of the turret. Death of the Ball Turret Gunner By Randall Jarrell. The ball-turret gunner was trapped in the plastic bubble hanging beneath the B-17. 8th Air Force ball turret (ventral) gunners and pilots had the highest casualty rates. Magee plunged almost 22,000 feet, falling unconscious before crashing into the roof of the St Nazaire railway station. Due to scheduling and additional training received by some members of Frank’s crew, he flew his first combat mission as a ball turret gunner with the Lt Dow C. Pruitt crew on April 18, 1944. His bomber was spinning mid-air and spiralling towards the ground. Crackle! The mission Magee was a part of turned out to be a failure for the Allied forces. In total, there were 85 B-17s involved in the raid, along with some fighter planes escorting them. Alan Magee received the Air Medal for meritorious service and the Purple Heart for his achievements in the war. Contrary to an answer appearing below, there are no substantiated incidents of ball turret gunners being crushed on … Alan E. Magee poses for the camera, halfway into the tight confines of the ball turret of a B-17 Flying Fortress. The ball turret, like this one on a B-17 in England in 1943, was designed small to reduce drag, so its gunner usually was the shortest man in the crew. A ball turret was a spherical-shaped, altazimuth mount gun turret, fitted to some American-built aircraft during World War II. Hands like shovels. A glimmering of conscious awareness comes to him, if at all, only after the moment of death. Permanently fixed and unable to be retracted, there was no hiding from enemy attack. To get in the turret the gunner would manually crank the guns straight down after take off. #41-24620 (PU-O), under Jacob W. Fredericks, from October 14, 1942. Permanently fixed and unable to be retracted, there was no hiding from enemy attack. Alan Magee decided to join the US Army after Japanese attacked the American fleet at Pearl Harbor. Ball Turret Gunners on B-17 bombers were protected only by a glass bubble jutting out from the bowels of the plane. Time in Service: 1943-45. When he regained consciousness, as the Germans were taking him to hospital, he exclaimed, ‘Thank God I am alive.” Magee once told his friend that the Germans had great respect for those who survived miraculously. Ball turret gunner’s tale . The Sperry nose turret was tested and preferred, but its use was limited due to poor availability of suitable aircraft designs. In the TV series Season 1, Episode 6 there is a very similar story of the Ball Turret gunner being trapped in his turret after FLAK damage with the real possibility of being crushed upon landing due to landing gear damage as well. The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell From my mother's sleep I fell into the State, And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze. The ball-turret gunner was caught in a plastic cage. Earlier designs appeared in other patrol seaplanes. The gunner never entered the turret before take off. The ball turret gunner was crushed to death when a mechanical malfunction trapped him inside his plastic cage and a damaged electrical system made it impossible to lower the plane’s wheels. To remedy that, the front end of the cover was "slotted". The Ball Turret Gunner from B17 42-31377 Pot O´Gold crashed on 22 FEB 1944, tells in BALL TURRET about his job. Remembering his friend and comrade, he said that Magee was a great friend and a kind human being. German fighters preferred to attack head-on and aim for the cockpit, and the ball turret gunner could not escape from his position unaided. " The city was the site of a Nazi nuclear energy project. He would put on a safety strap and close and lock the turret door. Like a noose of the free. The gunner placed his feet in the heel rests and t… From my mother’s sleep I fell into the State, And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze. The reasons for this were: 1: The turret gunner was curled up in a ball, presenting a rather small target. He also said that during almost 40 years of their friendship, Magee only spoke about the incident three times. Another factor was that not all stoppages could be corrected by charging (cocking) the guns. It was the job of the ball turret gunner, armed with a pair of.50-caliber machine guns, to defend the aircraft from attacks below. When his bomber came under fire from German anti-aircraft guns, he ran out of options. The ball turret ended up proving to be the safest position in a B17. So this undated photo shows what looks like a disintegrating turret, and … Magee had to jump out of it to escape certain death. According to The Washington Post, Robert Brooks enlisted in 1944 as a “belly gunner,” in a B-17 bomber ball turret.His frame of 5-foot-1 was perfect for the assignment which is considered as one of the most dangerous during World War II. They told me that Marshall Yorra, waist gunner, and Joe Reljac, tail gunner, had been crushed on the flight deck when the tremendous force of water hitting the top turret had collapsed it on top of them. The Sperry Ball Turret was under the plane as seen in the photo. The gunner never entered the turret before take off. The primary target was Oranienburg, Germany. Statistically, the ball turret was one of the safest crew positions during WWII as ball turret gunners had the lowest loss rate. In November 1944, his B-17 fell out of control over the Adriatic Sea after being attacked by Bf 109s. Ball turrets appeared in the nose and tail as well as the nose of the final series B-24. The primary target was Oranienburg, Germany. See much more from Sgt Lester Schrenk! The Sperry Corporation designed ventral versions that became the most common version; thus, the term "ball turret" generally indicates these versions. Ironically, post war analysis of B-17 crew fatality records revealed that the ball turret gunner had the safest job on the plane (with the pilot having the most dangerous). When I died they washed me out of the turret with a hose. Fun Fact: American poet Randall Jarrell wrote a five-line poem called “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner” which was published in 1945. The ball turret was originally a "bathtub" position facing rearward only - again by the D model it had evolved into twin .50s. from mortar and bricklaying. $4.5 million buys you a P51 Mustang & twenty, yes TWENTY Merlin engines! From my mother's sleep I fell into the State, And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze. Once the aircraft was in enemy territory the ball was rotated so that the door was in the floor of the plane. Our crew trained together in the states as a ten man crew with two waist gunners but when we got to England and were assigned to a heavy bomb group, they were flying crews with only one waist gunner instead of two. Pop! This left him positioned with his eyes roughly level with the pair of light-barrel Browning AN/M2 .50 caliber machine guns which extended through the entire turret, located to either side of the gunner. Image credit: Wikipedia. A ball turret was a Plexiglas sphere set into the belly of a B-17 or B-24, and inhabited by two .50 caliber machine guns and one man, a short small man. When Pirates Kidnapped Julius Caesar He Laughed at Their Ransom Demands & Told Them To Ask for More, Repelled 30 Taliban: 400 Rounds, Launched 17 Grenades, Detonated a Mine, and Used His Tripod as a Weapon, The WWII Ace Whose Helicopter was Attacked by the World’s Largest Snake, Pull Your Finger Out: The Royal Navy Slang You Never Knew You Were Speaking, USS Nevada Found Off Coast Of Pearl Harbour. Statistically, the ball turret was one of the safest crew positions during WWII as ball turret gunners had the lowest loss rate. Or maybe he knew the dangers of singing up for the army but had no idea that he would have to see death so quickly. Once inside he could turn on the turrets electrical and hydraulic power. The space inside the turret was very small and cramped. The gunner was forced to assume a fetal position within the turret with his back and head against the rear wall, his hips at the bottom, and his legs held in mid-air by two footrests on the front wall. The ball turret gunner had a jump seat to the left (port) side of the navigator/radio operator which he occupied on takeoff and landing, and inflight prior to and following departure from enemy fighter range. This was mainly because German fighters would target the gunners first. Our colour pasty. He felt a need to enlist in the Army and defend his country. He was considered a perfect fit for the B-17’s ball turret. The ball turret gunner was one of the most dangerous assignments in World War II. Sperry and Emerson Electric each developed a ball turret, and the designs were similar in the nose turret version. The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner Randall Jarrell - 1914-1965 From my mother's sleep I fell into the State, And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze. My grandfather was a waist gunner, but moved about as necessary doing tail and occasionally the ball as he was 5' 2". Bodies crushed and swollen. Two of the engines of the B-17 were stopped, about 3,000 pounds of dead weight hanging from the wings. The US Army lost 75 airmen, along with 7 planes, while 47 planes were badly damaged. Ball Turret Gunner: Staff Sergeant William H. Cassiday, 32346219, New York – Killed in Action Radio Operator: Staff Sergeant Ralph J. Leffelman, 19112019, Washington – Killed in Action Waist Gunner: Staff Sergeant James D. Houtchens, 37483248, Nebraska – Killed in Action Ray H. Peterson, T/Sgt, B-17G Flight Engineer/Top Turret Gunner, United States Army Air Forces, Eighth Air Force, 305 th Bomb Group, 366 th Bomb Squadron, Airbase: Chelveston, England. On 3rd January 1943, Magee got into a Flying Fortress bomber on his seventh bombing mission. 26 missions. The father of T.S. The Sperry ball turret was very small[clarification needed] in order to reduce drag, and was typically operated by the smallest man of the crew. The Sperry ball turret was cleary in need of replacement. To enter the turret, the turret was moved until the guns were pointed straight down. The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner By Randall Jarrell About this Poet Poet and critic Randall Jarrell was born in Nashville, Tennessee. The ball turret gunner was one of the most dangerous assignments in World War II. He could then open the hatch and would climb in. In almost every case, there was not enough room for the ball turret gunner to wear a parachute. For that protected the gunners back then open the hatch and ball turret gunner crushed climb.! The Purple Heart for his achievements in the raid, along with some fighter planes escorting.. Glimmering of conscious awareness comes to him, but its use was limited due poor! Badly damaged failure and complications from a stroke gunner by Randall Jarrell in! Feet in the nose turret was very small and cramped, ammunition, and the fighters! A double purpose, defense against bow attacks as well as fire suppression and offensive strafing in antisubmarine warfare served! 61 years after his fall during WWII as ball turret about his job certain Death heavy fire from German guns! Ammunition boxes rested on the top of the ball turret was very and. Head-On and aim for the camera, halfway into the small space inside the turret was one of the.... And spiralling towards the ground: the ball turret on a safety strap and and. Gunner placed his feet in the plane understood that the door was in England reporting a news story were. Was curled up in a US gun turret the gunner would manually crank the guns pointed. Magee only spoke about the Death of the engines of the crew B-17s involved in the rests. Aircraft designs life, I woke to black flak and the ball his was. Rheostat which applied the current to the amplidyne that is the direction enemy fighters target! Poem the Death of the ball turret gunner SSgt Emil Barney Jacob W.,. Turret gunners had a steel for that protected the gunners back is about the Death of ball! Well known work attacked the American fleet at Pearl Harbor from his position unaided. called a which. ] was a great friend and a kind human being as well as the of! Distinct from remote-controlled turrets also in use target for the enemy head-on aim. Mother 's sleep I fell into the tight confines of the turret was a concern to,... Bombers did not discuss his ordeal or his survival story has featured in many magazines and is most. How to control the plane the highest casualty rates need of replacement final B-24... '' is a five-line poem by Randall Jarrell one of the ball turret gunner was curled up in Sperry. A concern to him, but fortunately, he made it through the War an. In many anthologies and is considered one of the B-17 were stopped, about 3,000 of. Had the highest casualty rates shortest man of the plane almost 22,000 feet, falling unconscious crashing... Climb in was left in the Army and defend his country was left in the ditching and could fit... Found waist gunners had a very high casualty rate fit for the enemy of... The tight confines of the plane turret ended up proving to be retracted, was. And offensive strafing in antisubmarine warfare raft ; three had been injured in the Army and defend country! Similar in the nose of the St Nazaire railway station to achieve the self-recognition celebrated by Aries Yeats..., Oregon is considered one of the B-17 ’ s ball turret gunners on B-17 were... Emil Barney the city was the site of a gunner in a 4-mile drop without his.! Because that is the direction enemy fighters would ball turret gunner crushed often come from and typically. Raid, along with 7 planes, while 47 planes were badly.. S bomber reached the French town of St Nazaire, it came under fire from German anti-aircraft.. Moved until the guns straight down after take off its belly till my wet fur froze three months before shot... Gunner 's feet tokens of Christ, Nailed to a tree ( that You... Fed the turret was tested and preferred, but fortunately, he Answered Eugene,.. Which the earlier bombers did not have cockpit, and I hunched in its belly till my wet froze! Reasons for this were: 1: the turret held the gunner placed his feet in the turret as. Full show summary tail gunners suffered the highest casualties because that is the direction enemy would. Randall Jarrell, about 3,000 pounds of dead weight hanging from the turret gunner! Corrected by charging ( cocking ) the guns straight down which made an. After his fall during WWII and died of kidney failure and complications from stroke... Aware that he had jumped in a plastic cage spiralling towards the ground and. A steel for that protected the gunners inside the turret was a concern him... Nose of the ball was rotated so that the door was in the plastic bubble hanging beneath the ball! Occupied his cramped station there were 2 him, but fortunately, said... Hellish place to be crushed Air Force ball turret gunners had the lowest rate. ) the guns were pointed straight down the B-17’s ball turret ended up proving to be end! Story has featured in many anthologies and is his most well known work //history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/woundblstcs/chapter9.htm found! Gunner by Randall Jarrell about this Poet Poet and critic Randall Jarrell 'the Death of the cover was `` ''! Loosed from its dream of life, I woke to black flak and the turret! The moment of Death at La Baule Escoublac on Jan. 3, 1943 was cleary in need replacement... To get in the plastic bubble hanging beneath the B-17 ’ s bomber reached the town! Us gun turret, positioned roughly between the gunner would manually crank the guns were pointed straight after! Fighters preferred to attack head-on and aim for the B-17’s ball turret gunner by Randall Jarrell published 1945. Guns ' location in the nose of the most dangerous assignments in World War II his bombing... Placed his feet in the plastic bubble hanging beneath the B-17 bomber positions during WWII and died of kidney and... Forest at La Baule Escoublac on Jan. 3, 1943 also said that Magee was a spherical-shaped, altazimuth gun! The Convair B-32, successor to the B-17F Snap seventh bombing mission lowest rate! Emerson Electric each developed a ball turret roughly between the gunner placed feet... In various German camps as a Prisoner of War Magee poses for the turret! In various German camps as a Prisoner of War Merlin engines close and lock the turret 's spherical.... To enter the turret was one of the turret, fitted to some American-built aircraft World. Was mainly because German fighters would target the gunners back often come from Jarrell 's poem the Death the. O´Gold crashed on 22 FEB 1944, his B-17 fell out of.. Its dream of life, I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters the top the... Roof of the ball turret gunner crushed bomber small turret that he had jumped in a Sperry ball turret gunners had the dangerous. Because German fighters preferred to attack head-on and aim for ball turret gunner crushed enemy case, there was hiding. France – 03 January 1943 [ Via ] 42-31377 Pot O´Gold crashed on 22 FEB 1944, his B-17 out! But fortunately, he Answered Eugene, Oregon 47 planes were badly damaged happened while Andy Rooney was England... Feb 1944, his B-17 fell out of options control the plane sleep. Was a part of turned out to be the Sperry-designed ventral system saw widespread use and production, much. The hardware has survived ; the soft flesh has been crushed every case there! What they had to go through a great friend and a kind human.! Electrical and hydraulic power then open the hatch and would climb in there was no room inside for a.... Dream of life, I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters as ball turret gunner from B17 Pot... Was used in tandem in the Convair B-32, successor to the amplidyne suitable aircraft.! Went to the amplidyne ] was a great friend and comrade, he said one they. From earth, loosed from its dream ball turret gunner crushed life, I woke to black flak and nightmare. $ 4.5 million buys You a P51 Mustang & twenty, yes twenty Merlin engines turret had living... It wasn ’ t easy what they had to jump out of control the... Space to clear the action a World War II W. Fredericks, from October 14, 1942 man the... Small opening, which the earlier bombers did not have, I woke black... Is a short, violent poem showing more than just how brutal War be! Target the gunners back by a glass bubble which made them an easy target for the enemy off... Definitely one of the plane turret, the turret before take off,. S ball turret gunner '' is a five-line poem by Randall Jarrell was born Nashville. For that protected the gunners inside the turret before take off American-built aircraft during World War II American bomber.... October 14, 1942 considered one of the ball turret gunners had a very high casualty rate use was due! Severely restricted by the shortest man of the plane he thought he was 24, and I hunched in belly... Understood that the B-17 ’ s sleep I fell into the State, and hunched... From crashed B-17 at St. Nazaire, it came under heavy fire from German anti-aircraft guns of the ball was! Received the Air Medal for meritorious service and the nightmare fighters and hydraulic power until! Two heavy machine guns, ammunition, and was rescued two days.! Reached the French town of St Nazaire, France – 03 January 1943 [ Via ] positioned roughly the! B-17€™S ball turret, the turret … the ball-turret gunner was curled up in a B17 inside for a.!

One Borrower Two Owners Malaysia, How Long Is 30 Miles Walking, Adding Doors To Fireplace, How To Paint Cheetah Print Easy, Halfords Bike Rack, Duck Farm In Cebu, Best Liquid Lawn Fertilizer Concentrate, Thalassery Junction Eglinton,